Jaarboek 2012 van Eurostat – Europese Unie in cijfers (en)

Met dank overgenomen van Eurostat (ESTAT), gepubliceerd op vrijdag 11 mei 2012.

What share of those aged 18 to 24 left school early and what proportion of young people in the EU have completed at least upper secondary education? How much do households in the EU spend on food and on housing and clothing? How many mobile phone subscriptions are there per inhabitant and how many text messages are sent per person?

The answers to these questions and many more can be found in the 16th edition of the Eurostat yearbook1, published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The Eurostat yearbook is available as a regularly updated electronic publication on the Eurostat website.

Europe in figures - Eurostat yearbook 2012 presents a comprehensive selection of the statistical data available at Eurostat, together with explanatory text. The yearbook is an introduction to European statistics and provides guidance on the vast range of data freely available from the Eurostat website2 and its online databases. The yearbook shows how key indicators have developed in the EU27, the euro area and the Member States. Data for the EFTA countries, the Candidate countries, the US and Japan are also included when available.

The 2012 yearbook has thirteen chapters on different statistical areas: economy and finance; population; health; education and training; labour market; living conditions and social protection; industry, trade and services; agriculture, forestry and fisheries; international trade; transport; environment; energy; and science and technology.

This release presents a small selection of the statistics presented in the yearbook.

Highest proportion of early leavers from education found in Malta, Portugal and Spain

Early leavers from education and training are defined as persons aged 18 to 24 who have completed at most lower secondary education and who have not received any education or training in the last four weeks. The Europe 2020 strategy and the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training3 have set a target of 10% for 2020 for this indicator. In 2010, the percentage was 14% on average in the EU27, and varied among the Member States, from 5% in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Poland to 37% in Malta, 29% in Portugal and 28% in Spain. In the EU27, the proportion was 12% for women and 16% for men, with higher shares for men in all Member States, except Bulgaria and Slovakia.

Data on educational attainment show that 79% of those aged 20 to 24 in the EU27 had completed at least upper secondary education in 2010. The percentages varied among the Member States from 53% in Malta, 59% in Portugal, 61% in Spain and 68% in Denmark to 93% in Slovakia, 92% in the Czech Republic and 91% in Poland. On average in the EU27, 82% of women and 76% of men had completed at least upper secondary education in 2010. The percentage for women was higher than for men in all Member States except Bulgaria and Slovakia.

The age of students in tertiary education depends on many factors: whether they postpone starting tertiary education either by choice (e.g. by taking a gap year between secondary and tertiary education) or obligation (e.g. for military service), the length of the courses studied and the extent to which mature students return to education later in life. The median age in tertiary education was 22.1 in the EU27 in 2009, with the highest median ages observed in Sweden (25.3), Denmark (25.2), Finland (24.5) and Austria (23.8), and the lowest in Ireland (20.2), France (20.5), Belgium and Malta (both 20.7).

Education

 
 

Early leavers from education and training*, 2010

At least upper secondary education level**, 2010

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Median age in tertiary education***, 2009

EU27

14.1

16.0

12.1

79.0

76.2

81.8

22.1

Belgium

11.9

13.8

10.0

82.5

80.3

84.7

20.7

Bulgaria

13.9

13.2

14.5

84.4

85.0

83.6

21.5

Czech Republic

4.9

4.9

4.8

91.9

91.1

92.8

22.3

Denmark

10.7

13.6

7.5

68.3

61.4

75.6

25.2

Germany

11.9

12.7

11.0

74.4

72.2

76.7

23.2

Estonia

11.6

(15.2)

:

83.2

76.9

89.5

22.1

Ireland

10.5

12.6

8.4

88.0

85.3

90.6

20.2

Greece

13.7

16.5

10.8

83.4

79.5

87.2

:

Spain

28.4

33.5

23.1

61.2

54.7

67.9

22.4

France

12.6

15.2

10.0

83.2

80.2

86.2

20.5

Italy

18.8

22.0

15.4

76.3

72.6

80.2

22.2

Cyprus

12.6

16.2

9.8

86.3

83.2

89.0

21.2

Latvia

13.3

17.2

9.4

79.9

74.1

85.9

22.4

Lithuania

8.1

9.9

(6.2)

86.9

84.2

89.7

21.7

Luxembourg

(7.1)

(8.0)

(6.0)

73.4

67.9

78.7

:

Hungary

10.5

11.5

9.5

84.0

82.0

85.9

22.2

Malta

36.9

40.9

32.3

53.3

47.0

60.8

20.7

Netherlands

10.1

12.2

7.9

77.6

73.7

81.6

21.5

Austria

8.3

8.4

8.2

85.6

84.9

86.2

23.8

Poland

5.4

7.2

3.5

91.1

88.4

93.8

21.7

Portugal

28.7

32.7

24.6

58.7

54.8

62.7

22.1

Romania

18.4

18.6

18.2

78.2

77.7

78.8

22.1

Slovenia

(5.0)

(6.4)

(3.3)

89.1

86.1

92.8

22.2

Slovakia

4.7

4.6

4.9

93.2

93.2

93.1

22.2

Finland

10.3

11.6

9.0

84.2

82.8

85.6

24.5

Sweden

9.7

10.9

8.5

85.9

84.9

86.9

25.3

United Kingdom

14.9

15.8

14.0

80.4

78.9

82.0

22.3

Iceland

22.6

26.0

19.0

53.4

51.4

55.5

26.6

Liechtenstein

:

:

:

:

:

:

24.3

Norway

17.4

21.4

13.2

71.1

66.4

75.9

24.6

Switzerland

6.6

6.1

7.0

82.3

80.5

84.3

23.9

Croatia

(3.7)

(4.6)

(2.6)

95.7

94.3

97.3

20.7

Former Yug. Rep. of Macedonia

15.5

13.7

17.5

82.8

86.0

79.5

20.6

Turkey

43.1

37.8

47.9

51.1

57.2

46.0

21.0

  • Persons aged 18-24 who have a highest level of education or training attained corresponding to lower secondary school and who have declared not having received any education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey.

** The share of young people aged 20-24 having completed at least upper secondary education.

*** The median age is the age which divides the total population into two equal groups. Half of the population are older and half are younger than this age.

() Uncertain data due to limited sample size

  • Data missing or not published due to too small sample size

Almost a quarter of household consumption expenditure on housing

Consumption can be divided into different categories of goods and services. In the table below, the most important categories are presented, covering almost 80% of total final consumption expenditure of households in the EU27.

In a large majority of Member States, housing accounted for the largest share of final consumption expenditure of households in 2010. The exceptions were Lithuania, Malta, Portugal and Romania, where food had the highest share.

For housing, the shares varied from 12% in Malta, 15% in Lithuania and 16% in Portugal to 30% in Denmark and 27% in Finland, the Czech Republic and Sweden, compared with an EU27 average of 24%. It is interesting to note that on an EU level, transport accounted for the same share as food (13%). For food, the proportions ranged from 9% in Luxembourg and the United Kingdom to 29% in Romania and 26% in Lithuania. For restaurants and hotels, the shares varied from 3% in Lithuania and Poland to 17% in Spain, while for clothing and footwear, the proportions ranged from 3% in Hungary and the Czech Republic to 8% in Italy and Lithuania.

Final consumption expenditure of households*, 2010

(% of total household consumption expenditure)

 
 

Housing**

Transport

Food & non-alcoholic beverages

Recreation & culture

Restaurants & hotels

Furnishings

Clothing & footwear

EU27

23.6

13.0

12.9

8.9

8.5

5.7

5.3

Belgium

24.0

12.1

13.8

9.1

5.9

5.9

5.0

Bulgaria

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Czech Republic

26.8

9.2

13.8

10.2

7.5

5.3

3.0

Denmark

29.8

12.0

11.2

11.1

4.8

5.4

4.4

Germany

24.6

13.4

11.0

9.2

5.8

6.2

5.1

Estonia

22.6

13.8

19.8

6.0

5.9

3.9

5.0

Ireland***

22.3

12.2

9.8

6.8

13.5

6.1

4.6

Greece

22.3

11.8

16.2

5.7

10.1

4.5

4.7

Spain

20.2

11.6

14.1

8.2

16.9

4.8

5.2

France

25.5

14.0

13.4

8.6

7.0

5.8

4.3

Italy

22.2

12.9

14.4

7.2

9.8

7.1

7.7

Cyprus***

17.9

12.9

12.4

7.8

14.5

5.2

6.5

Latvia

25.3

12.4

18.7

7.9

4.4

3.7

5.5

Lithuania***

14.8

16.0

26.4

5.9

2.8

4.9

7.7

Luxembourg

24.3

17.1

9.2

8.2

7.0

6.8

3.7

Hungary

22.0

13.1

16.7

7.8

6.9

4.6

2.7

Malta***

12.3

12.3

15.5

11.0

14.6

7.1

4.5

Netherlands

23.9

12.0

11.7

10.0

5.0

6.1

5.6

Austria

21.6

13.1

10.2

10.4

11.8

6.6

6.0

Poland

24.2

9.3

19.6

7.8

2.8

4.4

4.1

Portugal***

15.6

12.7

16.9

7.2

11.0

6.1

5.9

Romania***

23.5

13.5

29.1

4.9

5.0

5.1

3.5

Slovenia

19.0

14.9

14.9

9.2

7.1

6.4

5.2

Slovakia

25.3

7.2

17.3

9.7

5.7

6.3

4.1

Finland

26.9

11.0

12.3

11.5

6.3

5.4

5.0

Sweden***

26.8

13.4

12.3

11.1

5.6

4.9

4.9

United Kingdom***

24.5

14.3

9.4

10.9

9.9

4.9

5.8

Iceland***

22.3

14.8

14.4

10.5

8.6

6.9

4.2

Norway

22.0

14.6

13.2

12.6

5.8

5.6

5.4

Switzerland***

24.2

7.5

10.7

8.1

7.7

4.7

3.8

Former Yug. Rep. of Macedonia***

20.1

9.0

32.5

2.9

4.0

5.0

5.4

  • Groups of goods and services not mentioned in the table: alcoholic beverages, health, communications, education and miscellaneous goods and services

** Housing includes actual and imputed rentals, water, electricity, gas and other fuels

*** 2008 data: Ireland, 2009 data: Cyprus, Lithuania, Portugal, Romania, Switzerland and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2011 data: Malta, Sweden, the United Kingdom and Iceland

  • Data not available

Largest number of SMS messages per inhabitant in Lithuania and Ireland

In recent years, the way in which European citizens communicate has changed significantly, from traditional letters sent by post to electronic communication, for example text messages sent by mobile phones.

There were 125 mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in the EU27 in 2009, indicating that many inhabitants had more than one subscription. The highest shares were observed in Greece (180 mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants), Italy and Portugal (both 151).

There were 580 SMS messages sent per inhabitant in the EU27 in 2009. This number varied considerably between Member States, reflecting cultural differences, but also differences in contracts and prices, with the highest in Lithuania (2 800 SMS messages per inhabitant), Ireland (2 700), Denmark and Portugal (both 2 400).

As regards a more traditional way of communicating across the EU27, there were on average 3 900 inhabitants per post office4 in 2010, up from 3 300 in 2004. In 2010, the largest number of persons per post office were recorded in Belgium (7 900), the Netherlands (7 600) and Greece (7 100).

Telecommunication and postal services

 
 

Mobile phone subscriptions*

per 100 inhabitants, 2009

Number of SMSs**

per inhabitant, 2009

Average number of inhabitants per post office***, 2010

EU27

125

583

3 948

Belgium

108

1 374

7 856

Bulgaria

139

87

2 422

Czech Republic

136

730

777

Denmark

124

2 413

6 773

Germany

132

420

6 289

Estonia

117

163

3 481

Ireland

119

2 677

3 322

Greece

180

677

7 082

Spain

111

180

4 728

France

95

977

3 810

Italy

151

:

4 276

Cyprus

133

1 984

729

Latvia

99

:

3 567

Lithuania

148

2 757

3 721

Luxembourg

146

889

1 082

Hungary

118

188

3 225

Malta

102

1 201

6 846

Netherlands

122

495

7 585

Austria

133

687

4 543

Poland

118

1 224

4 567

Portugal

151

2 397

3 670

Romania

118

346

3 135

Slovenia

103

491

3 668

Slovakia

102

252

3 397

Finland

145

713

5 119

Sweden

126

1 758

1 470

United Kingdom

130

:

5 244

Iceland

106

459

1 924

Liechtenstein

97

:

:

Norway

111

1 328

1 469

Switzerland

121

736

:

Croatia

91

787

3 864

Former Yug. Rep.

of Macedonia

95

229

3 654

Turkey

88

1 793

:

  • Austria: source - Directorate General Information Society and Media of the European Commission

** Norway: 2008 data

*** Italy, Iceland and Norway: 2007 data.

  • Data not available

"Europe in figures - Eurostat yearbook 2012". Available free of charge on the Eurostat website in the Statistics Explained section: http://bit.ly/Eurostat_yearbook. The PDF version of the yearbook will become available shortly.

  • Data cover only post offices run by universal service providers, which are appointed by a national regulator to provide universal service within its national territory.
 

Issued by: Eurostat Press Office

Louise CORSELLI-NORDBLAD

Tel: +352-4301-33 444

eurostat-pressoffice@ec.europa.eu

Eurostat news releases on the internet: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat